Language Training, Cross-Cultural Training, Cross-Cultural Communication
This article is a survey of some historical, cognitive, and cultural features of institutional—particularly government and military—language training, to examine and plot a faster and less effortful trip to proficiency. My thesis is that our own cultural and institutional climates play a crucial role in what our students can learn and who they can become.
Language Training, Regional Expertise, Cross-Cultural Training
The Defense Language Transformation Roadmap was built out of a need for each Military Department, Combatant Command (COCOM), and Defense Agency to review its requirements for language professionals. The Defense Foreign Language Steering Committee (DFLSC) oversaw the development of this Roadmap and approved its assumptions, descriptions of the current situation, desired outcomes, and recommendations.
The author examines the following limitations of research on individualism and collectivism: It treats nations as cultures and culture as a continuous quantitative variable; conflates all kinds of social relations and distinct types of autonomy; ignores contextual specificity in norms and values; measures culture as the personal preferences and behavior reports of individuals; rarely establishes the external validity of the measures used; assumes cultural invariance in the meaning of self-reports and anchoring and interpretation of scales; and reduces culture to explicit, abstract verbal knowledge.