The purpose of this summary report is to detail the progress made in identifying potential barriers and gaps within organizations and to serve as a resource for the development of a Cross-Cultural Competence (3C) White Paper.
The author examines the following limitations of research on individualism and collectivism: It treats nations as cultures and culture as a continuous quantitative variable; conflates all kinds of social relations and distinct types of autonomy; ignores contextual specificity in norms and values; measures culture as the personal preferences and behavior reports of individuals; rarely establishes the external validity of the measures used; assumes cultural invariance in the meaning of self-reports and anchoring and interpretation of scales; and reduces culture to explicit, abstract verbal knowledge.
This document was produced through an ad hoc collaboration among scientists from three Military Services (U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Marine Corps) to summarize and highlight 3C research focused on, or relevant to, the military.
The purpose of this descriptive study is to discuss the creation and implementation of a self-paced course designed to present military and academic course content in an engaging and interactive format. The paper reviews the "Introduction to Cross-Cultural Communication" course piloted to 150 Air Force personnel in Spring 2011 and reveals the challenges and opportunities inherent to self-paced courses for student service members and instructors.