Country & Language Toolkits

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Iran

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy…

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Iraq

Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by the United Kingdom during the course…

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Israel

Following World War II, Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine, and the UN proposed…

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Italy

Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with…

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Jamaica

The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in…

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Japan

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power that was able to…