Cross-Cultural Competence (3C)
The contemporary operational environment is often characterized by ambiguous, multi-cultural contexts, where Army Soldiers must rapidly adapt without extensive prior knowledge of a region or its people. Ongoing training development efforts are addressing the need for general cross-cultural competence, but this broad competence must be clearly defined and assessed in order to determine if Soldiers are being adequately prepared.
In this article, we describe how cross-cultural research methodologies have evolved, with each phase of research addressing limitations of a previous one.
Motivated Response Styles: The Role of Cultural Values, Regulatory Focus, and Self-Consciousness in Socially Desirable Responding
Three studies investigated the relations between cultural values and socially desirable responding, the processes that underlie them, and factors that influence the strength of the relations. Results indicated that individualism was associated with self-deceptive enhancement but not impression management, whereas collectivism was associated with impression management but not self-deceptive enhancement.
While group intellectual capital, manifested in the ability to transfer core competencies from one experience to the next, is critical for sustaining competitive advantage, today's organization faces the difficulty of measuring and managing these intangible assets. Here we examine the unique role of expatriate managers in enhancing group intellectual capital by facilitating the transfer of knowledge across national borders.
Is It Culture or Is It Language? Examination of Language Effects in Cross-Cultural Research on Categorization
Differences in reasoning styles between Chinese and European Americans held even when controlling for the language of testing. Bilingual Chinese organized objects in a more relational and less categorical way than European Americans, whether tested in English or in Chinese. Thus, culture affects categorization independent of the testing language.
What’s Wrong With Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Subjective Likert Scales?: The Reference-Group Effect
Social comparison theory maintains that people think about themselves compared with similar others. Those in one culture, then, compare themselves with different others and standards than do those in another culture, thus potentially confounding cross-cultural comparisons.
In order that military personnel be better armed to access this vital information and are thus able to use it to enhance their probability of mission success, we need a science of cultural readiness. In this we need to identify and distill methods of measurement and assessment which allow us to capture and disseminate culturally-contingent information.
Reasons as Carriers of Culture: Dynamic vs. Dispositional Models of Cultural Influence on Decision Making
We argue that a way culture influences decisions is through the reasons that individuals recruit when required to explain their choices. Specifically, we propose that cultures endow individuals with different rules or principles that provide guidance for making decisions, and a need to provide reasons activates such cultural knowledge.
In this article, the authors advanced a cultural view of judgment biases in conflict and negotiation, analyzing these biases and practices in individualist versus collectivist societies.
This monograph proposes that a major deficiency in current Joint doctrine is the failure to conduct cultural assessment of population groups in an area of operations and to integrate these results into the campaign planning process.